Notes: Final expenditure on pharmaceuticals includes wholesale and retail margins and value-added tax. Total pharmaceutical spending refers in most countries to “net” spending, i.e., adjusted for possible rebates payable by manufacturers, wholesalers, or pharmacies. Data from all countries include only the portion spent on retail prescription medications, except for the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, where spending on pharmaceuticals includes prescribed medicines, over-the-counter medications, and other medical nondurable goods. Pharmaceuticals consumed in hospitals and other health care settings are excluded. All health care spending estimates exclude capital formation.
Data Source: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2017.
Source: The Commonwealth Fund: Paying for Prescription Drugs Around the World: Why Is the U.S. an Outlier?